The developers of this app have used key research papers to guide what measures should be included but also to develop the normative graphs. While this list is not exhaustive, here are some of the key research papers that have been used in the app development.

For more information and instructions on the use of the Foot Posture Index:

Redmond, A. (1998). The Foot Posture Index: User guide and manual   Retrieved from

Bennell, K., Khan, K. M., Matthews, B., De Gruyter, M., Cook, E., Holzer, K., & Wark, J. D. (1999). Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female ballet dancers and controls. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(5), 340–346.

Burns, J., & Crosbie, J. (2005). Weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in idiopathic pes cavus compared to normal and pes planus feet. The Foot, 15(2), 91-94.

Cusick, B., & Stuberg, w. (1992). Assessment of lower limb extremity alignment in the transverse plane: Implication for management of children with neuromotor dysfunction. Journal of the American Physical Therapy association , 72, 13-25.

 Evans, A. M., Copper, A. W., Scharfbillig, R. W., Scutter, S. D., & Williams, M. T. (2003). Reliability of the foot posture index and traditional measures of foot position. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 93(3), 203-213.

 Evans, A. M., Rome, K., & Peet, L. (2012). The foot posture index, ankle lunge test, Beighton scale and the lower limb assessment score in healthy children: a reliability study. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 5(1), 1. doi: 10.1186/1757-1146-5-1

Gelberman, R., Cohen, M., Desai, S., Griffin, P., Salamon, P., & O'Brien, T. (1987). Femoral Anteversion: A clinical assessment of idiopathic intoeing gait in children. Journal of Joint and Bone Surgery , 69, 75-79.

Katz, K., Rosenthal, A., & Yosipovitch, Z. (1992). Normal ranges of popliteal angle in children. Journal of pediatric orthopaedics , 12, 229-231.

Mudge, A., Bau, K., Purcell, L., Wu, J., Axt, M., Selber, P., et al. (2013). Normative reference values for lower limb joint range, bone torsion and alignment in children 4-16 years. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics , 1-11.

Panjavi, B., & Mortazavi, J. (2007). Rotational deformities of the lower limb in children. Iran Journal of Pediatrics , 17, 393-397.

Roach, K., & Miles, T. (1991). Normal hip and knee range of motion: the relationship with age. Journal of American Physical Therapy Association , 71, 656-665.

Rose, K. J., Burns, J., & North, K. N. (2010). Factors associated with foot and ankle strength in healthy preschool-age children and age-matched cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Journal of Child Neurology, 25(4), 463-468. doi: 10.1177/0883073809340698

Sankar, W., Laird, C., & Baldwin, K. (2012). Hip range of motion in children: What is the norm? Journal of pediatric orthopaedics , 32, 399-405.

Schwartz, M., & Lakin, G. (2003). The effect of tibial torsion on the dynamic function of the soleus during gait. Gait & Posture , 17, 113-118.

Soucie, J., Forsyth, A., Funk, S., Denny, M., Roach, K., & Boone, D. (2011). Range of motion measurements: reference values and a database for comparison. Haemophillia , 17, 500-507.

Staheli, L. T., Corbett, M., Wyss, C., & King, H. (1985). Lower extremity rotational problems in children. Normal value guide to management. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery , 67, 39-47.

 Staheli, M. D., & Engel, G. M. (1972). Tibial torsion: a method of assessment and a survey of normal children. Clinical orthopaedics and related research , 86, 183-186.

Steinberg, N., Hershkovitz, I., Peleg, S., Dar, G., Masharawi, Y., Heim, M., et al. (2006). Range of joint movement in female dancers and nondancers aged 8-16. American Journal of Sports Medicine , 34, 814-823.

Svenningsen, S., Terjesen, T., Auflem, M., & Berg, V. (1990). Hip Rotation and In-toing Gait: A study of normal subjects from four years until adult. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related research , 251, 177-182.

Tonnis, D. (1976). Normal values of the hip joint for the evaluation of x-rays in children and adults. Clinical orthopaedics and related research , 119, 39-47.

Williams, C., Tinley, P. D., Curtin, M., & Nielsen, S. (2013). Foot and ankle characteristics of children with an idiopathic toe-walking gait. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 103(5), 374-379.

Williams, C. M., James, A. M., & Tran, T. (2013). Metatarsus adductus: development of a non-surgical treatment pathway. J Paediatr Child Health, 49(9), E428-433